Staying on the subject of Dark Age myths:
Since the s, there has been speculation that nuclear fusion might be possible at much lower temperatures by catalytically fusing hydrogen absorbed in a metal catalyst.
Ina claim by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann then one of the world's leading electrochemists that such cold fusion had been observed caused a brief media sensation before the majority of scientists criticized their claim as incorrect after many found they could not replicate the excess heat.
Since the initial announcement, cold fusion research has continued by a small community of researchers who believe that such reactions happen and hope to gain wider recognition for their experimental evidence.
Early research The ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen was recognized as early as the nineteenth century by Thomas Graham. However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air.
After a brief period of interest by the wider scientific community, their reports were called into question by nuclear physicists.
Pons and Fleischmann never retracted their claims, but moved their research program to France after the controversy erupted. Events preceding announcement Electrolysis cell schematic Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton and Stanley Pons of the University of Utah hypothesized that the high compression ratio and mobility of deuterium that could be achieved within palladium metal using electrolysis might result in nuclear fusion.
Current was applied continuously for many weeks, with the heavy water being renewed at intervals. These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they had occurred. The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases.
Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell. 5 fatal flaws your application essay and Pons and co-workers met with Jones and co-workers on occasion in Utah to share research and techniques.
During this time, Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone. Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest.
Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework. PetersonFleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.
The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer-review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 1]  this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.
Nathan Lewisprofessor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technologyled one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success,  while CERN physicist Douglas R.
Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day.
At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelskiabstaining. Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of "the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann," which was met with a standing ovation.
Morrisona physicist representing CERNwas the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.
The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utahand nine co-authors reported negative results.
The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics. On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds;  it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.
These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis set-ups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community. Current research Cold fusion research continues today in a few specific venues, but the wider scientific community has generally marginalized the research being done and researchers have had difficulty publishing in mainstream journals.
A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all. Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.
On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.
In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here. The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.
While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject inthe conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review. The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were:Spectre and Meltdown Attacks Against Microprocessors.
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