KJBevan Flexible work programs are work arrangements wherein employees are given greater scheduling freedom in how they fulfill the obligations of their positions. The most commonplace of these programs is flextime, which gives workers far greater leeway in terms of the time when they begin and end work, provided they put in the total number of hours required by the employer. Other common flexible working arrangements involve telecommuting, job-sharing, and compressed work weeks. Supporters of flexible work programs hail them as important recognition of the difficulties that many employees have in balancing their family obligations and their work duties, and they note that such programs can make a company more attractive to prospective employees.
Instigating productive conflict Leadership Styles Given the large amount of research done on leadership, it is not surprising that there are several different ways to define or categorize leadership styles.
In general, effective leaders do not fit solely into one style in any of the following classifications. Instead, they are able to adapt their leadership style to fit the relational and situational context.
One common way to study leadership style is to make a distinction among autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leaders. These leadership styles can be described as follows: Autocratic leaders set policies and make decisions primarily on their own, taking advantage of the power present in their title or status to set the agenda for the group.
Democratic leaders facilitate group discussion and like to take input from all members before making a decision. While this is a frequently cited model of leadership styles, we will focus in more detail on a model that was developed a few years after this one. I choose to focus on this later model because it offers some more specifics in terms of the communicative elements of each leadership style.
The four leadership styles used in this model are directive, participative, supportive, and achievement oriented. House and Terrence R. Directive Leaders Directive leaders Leaders who provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.
Although this is most similar to the autocratic leadership style mentioned before, it is more nuanced and flexible. The originators of this model note that a leader can be directive without being seen as authoritarian. To do this, directive leaders must be good motivators who encourage productivity through positive reinforcement or reward rather than through the threat of punishment.
Directive leaders provide structure and clear expectations for their group.
To be effective they must be skilled motivators. It can also be the most appropriate method during crisis situations in which decisions must be made under time constraints or other extraordinary pressures.
Participative Leaders Participative leaders Leaders who work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions.
This style of leadership can also aid in group member socialization, as the members feel like they get to help establish group norms and rules, which affects cohesion and climate.
As we learned earlier, this is good to a point, but it can become negative when the pressures lead to unethical group member behavior. In addition to consulting group members for help with decision making, participative leaders also grant group members more freedom to work independently.
This can lead group members to feel trusted and respected for their skills, which can increase their effort and output. The participative method of leadership is similar to the democratic style discussed earlier, and it is a style of leadership practiced in many organizations that have established work groups that meet consistently over long periods of time.
US companies began to adopt a more participative and less directive style of management in the s after organizational scholars researched teamwork and efficiency in Japanese corporations. Japanese managers included employees in decision making, which blurred the line between the leader and other group members and enhanced productivity.
These small groups were called quality circles, because they focused on group interaction intended to improve quality and productivity. Cragan and David W.Advantages of Agile. Agile evolved from different lightweight software approaches in the s and is a response to some project managers’ dislike of the rigid, linear Waterfall methodology.
Communication involves the transfer of information from one party to another. This lesson discusses one-way communication and its advantages and applications. 1 ICA Working Paper # 1/, February The Risks of Visualization A Classification of Disadvantages Associated with Graphic Representations of Information.
Delhi Business Review? Vol. 2, No. 2, July - December MANAGING CROSS-CULTURAL DIVERSITY A CHALLENGE FOR PRESENT AND FUTURE ORGANIZATIONS Subhash C. Kundu. Flexible work programs are work arrangements wherein employees are given greater scheduling freedom in how they fulfill the obligations of their positions.
The most commonplace of these programs is flextime, which gives workers far greater leeway in terms of the time when they begin and end work.
American Fast Food (The Hamburger): A Cultural Lesson Khalid Al-Seghayer Khast5 [at] heartoftexashop.comD. Student, University of Pittsburgh (PA, USA) Target Students Level: Intermediate High Time: minutes (50 for each class) Introduction.