This is especially true if the characteristics of highly moral people are clearly described. He was also inspired by James Mark Baldwin. These men emphasized that human beings develop philosophically and psychologically in a progressive fashion.
What is a Child? The very notion of a child, we now realize, is both historically and culturally conditioned. But exactly how the conception of childhood has changed historically and how conceptions differ across cultures is a matter of scholarly controversy and philosophical interest see Kennedy, And, whereas Piaget claims that his subjects, Swiss children in the first half of the 20th Century, were animistic in their thinking Piaget,Margaret Mead presents evidence that Pacific island children were not.
According to Aristotle, there are four sorts of causality, one of which is Final causality and another is Formal Causality. Aristotle thinks of the Final Cause of a living organism as the function that organism normally performs when it reaches maturity. He thinks of the Formal Cause of the organism as the form or structure it normally has in maturity, where that form or structure is thought to enable the organism to perform its functions well.
According to this conception, a human child is an immature specimen of the organism type, human, which, by nature, has the potentiality to develop into a mature specimen with the structure, form, and function of a normal or standard adult.
Many adults today have this broadly Aristotelian conception of childhood without having actually read any of Aristotle. It informs their understanding of their own relationship toward the children around them. Thus they consider the fundamental responsibility they bear toward their children to be the obligation to provide the kind of supportive environment those children need to develop into normal adults, with the biological and psychological structures in place needed to perform the functions we assume that normal, standard adults can perform.
Two modifications of this Aristotelian conception have been particularly influential in the last century and a half.
One is the 19th century idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Gould,that is, that the development of an individual recapitulates the history and evolutionary development of the race, or species Spock, This idea is prominent in Freud and in the early writings of Jean Piaget see, e.
Piaget, however, sought in his later writings to explain the phenomenon of recapitulation by appeal to general principles of structural change in cognitive development see, e. The other modification is the idea that development takes places in age-related stages of clearly identifiable structural change.
This idea can be traced back to ancient thinkers, for example the Stoics Turner and Matthews, But it is Piaget who first developed a highly sophisticated version of stage theory and made it the dominant paradigm for conceiving childhood in the latter part of the 20th Century see, e.
This conception, he argues, ignores or undervalues the fact that children are, for example, better able to learn a second language, or paint an aesthetically worthwhile picture, or conceive a philosophically interesting question, than those same children will likely be able to do as adults.
Moreover, it restricts the range and value of relationships adults think they can have with their children.
Broadly Aristotelian conceptions of childhood can have two further problematic features. They may deflect attention away from thinking about children with disabilities in favour of theorizing solely about normally developing children see Carlsonand they may distract philosophers from attending to the goods of childhood when they think about the responsibilities adults have towards the children in their care, encouraging focus only on care required to ensure that children develop adult capacities.
How childhood is conceived is crucial for almost all the philosophically interesting questions about children. It is also crucial for questions about what should be the legal status of children in society, as well as for the study of children in psychology, anthropology, sociology, and many other fields.
Theories of Cognitive Development Any well-worked out epistemology will provide at least the materials for a theory of cognitive development in childhood.
But it also implies a rejection of the Platonic doctrine that learning is a recollection of previously known Forms. Few theorists of cognitive development today find either the extreme empiricism of Locke or the strong innatism of Plato or Descartes completely acceptable. It is, however, the work of Jean Piaget that has been most influential on the way psychologists, educators, and even philosophers have come to think about the cognitive development of children.
Although his project is always to lay out identifiable stages in which children come to understand what, say, causality or thinking or whatever is, the intelligibility of his account presupposes that there are satisfactory responses to the philosophical quandaries that topics like causality, thinking, and life raise.
Take the concept of life. Life is assimilated to activity in general Second Stage: Life is assimilated to movement Third Stage: Life is assimilated to spontaneous movement Fourth Stage:The Child As A Moral Philosopher By Kohlberg A 4 page paper that summarizes this article by Lawrence Kohlberg.
In this article, Kohlberg explains his stages of moral development, commenting on each and including specific examples.
kohlberg's stages of moral. A an analysis of hero in the mythology and legends in human history Research on Moral Development an analysis of lawrence kolbergs article the child as a moral philosopher by Lawrence a description of the lack of effective enforcement of the bill of rights in the last years Kohlberg.
KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg was a moral philosopher and student of child development. He was director of Harvard's Center for Moral Education. His special area of interest is the moral development of children - how they develop a sense of right, wrong, and justice.
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago  in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.
The Child as a Moral Philosopher by Lawrence Kohlberg, Psychology Today, (vol. 2, Sept. ) For 12 years, my colleagues and I studied the same group of 75 boys, following their development at three-year intervals from early adolescence through young manhood.
At the start of the study, the boys were aged 10 to The Child as a Moral Philosopher In this Article The Child as a Moral Philosopher, psychologist Lawrence Kolberg gives a clear description of his theory of moral development.
Kolberg uses the studies of seventy-five American boys of varying ages.