Familiarity with philosophy is not presupposed. The central aim of this course is to introduce John Rawls theory of justice as it applies both to domestic justice constitutional democracy and to international relations between peoples. Rawls work is universally recognized as the single most important contribution in the twentieth century to the theory of social and political justice. Reading Rawls will deeply and permanently affect the way one understands and appreciates the ideal and limits of democratic justice as well as proper and fair relations among states.
He is chiefly known, however, for his book A Theory of Justice, an effort to define social justice. The work has greatly influenced modern political thought. Rawls was dissatisfied with the traditional philosophical arguments about what makes a social institution just and about what justifies political or social actions and policies.
The utilitarian argument holds that societies should pursue the greatest good for the greatest number. This argument has a number of problems, including, especially, that it seems to be consistent with the idea of the tyranny of majorities over minorities.
The intuitionist argument holds that humans intuit what is right or wrong by some innate moral sense. Rawls attempts to establish a reasoned account of social justice through the social contract approach.
This approach holds that a society is in some sense an agreement among all those within that society. If a society were an agreement, Rawls asks, what kind of arrangement would everyone agree to? He states that the contract is a purely hypothetical one: He does not argue that people had existed outside the social state or had made agreements to establish a particular type of society.
Rawls begins his work with the idea of justice as fairness. He identifies the basic structure of society as the primary subject of justice and identifies justice as the first virtue of social institutions. He considers justice a matter of the organization and internal divisions of a society.
The main idea of a theory of justice asks, What kind of organization of society would rational persons choose if they were in an initial position of independence and equality and were setting up a system of cooperation?
This is what Rawls sees as a hypothetical original position: After considering the main characteristics of justice as fairness and the theoretical superiority of this approach to utilitarianism, intuitionism, or other perspectives, Rawls looks at the principles of justice.
He identifies two principles: From these two principles Rawls derives an egalitarian conception of justice that would allow the inequality of conditions implied by equality of opportunity but would also give more attention to those born with fewer assets and into less favorable social positions.
Rawls concludes the first part of his book by looking at the idea of the original position outside society. This hypothetical original position can be approximated by using the thought experiment of the veil of ignorance. If no one could know what place he or she would occupy in the society being formed, what arrangement of the society would a rational person choose?
Rawls maintains that the choice would be for a social structure that would best benefit the unknowing chooser if she or he happened to end up in the least desirable position. In the second part of the work, Rawls considers the implications of his view of justice for social institutions.
He discusses in detail equal liberty, economic distribution, and duties and obligations as well as the main characteristics of each that would make up a just society.
He does not, however, identify any particular type of social or political system that would be consistent with his theory.John Rawls is the subject of A Theory of Justice: The Musical!, an award-nominated musical billed as an "all-singing, all-dancing romp through 2, years of political philosophy".
The musical premiered at Oxford in and was revived for the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. INTRODUCTORY MATERIALS. Just war theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces.
Unfamiliar with the basic terms of analysis and debate? Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories.
Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their heartoftexashop.com specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce.
Other Internet Resources Current Issues in Distributive Justice. Center For Economic And Social Justice This site promotes a new paradigm of economics and development, the “just third way”. Provides links to numerous organisations, reports, articles and statistical data which support its paradigm.
A Theory of Justice Within this essay, the Theory of Justice will be broke down. It will lay out some personal information on John Rawls.
It will lay out some personal information on John Rawls. It will give the principles of the theory and explain what they mean. Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. As with most philosophically-driven disciplines, the concept of justice differs in every heartoftexashop.com early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The heartoftexashop.comtes of divine command theory say that justice issues from God.