PAC - Multicultural Counseling Theories 3 Credits This course brings multicultural addiction counseling and therapy through micro-counseling - a practice that integrated multi-cultural concerns as far back as Crisis counseling and assessing suicide potential are also covered to ensure counselors can detect those in extreme distress.
Homo sapiens first appeared aboutyears ago At this stage we were still hunter-gatherers, out looking for food rather than growing and rearing our own supplies. These modern hunter-gatherers tend to be shorter and lighter than their urban cousins but still need to consume far more calories due to the additional energy expended in finding food.
The ability to adapt our diet has been essential to the human migration from the warmth of Africa to the cold of Biological perspective psychology essay Arctic north and the arid heat of the deserts.
Why the preference for a high fat diet? Calories are essential for energy. Every cell in the body produces energy by the process of respiration and respiration needs a constant supply of glucose.
Fat can store twice as many calories per unit weight than proteins are carbohydrates. If food was scarce it would literally have been survival of the fattest!
We seem to learn at a very young age which foods are high in calories and we develop a taste for these. Gibson and Wardle found that the calorific value of food was the best predictor of whether or not a child would like that food. Fats are very useful for energy. A given amount of fat contains about twice the calories of similar amounts of protein or carbohydrate.
In our historical past, fats would have been relatively rare. As a result fat would have been relished and cherished! Today, in contrast fat is everywhere, but unfortunately we have not lost that preference for it and as a result we consume it in huge and dangerous amounts. This comprised some meat, fish, fatty oils, fruit and veg.
Fatty foods would have provided the calories along with vitamins A and D whilst the fruit and veg would have provided a few carbohydrates and vitamins B and C. Compared to modern diet however, carbohydrates would have been in short supply. Some believe this move away from our ancient diet with a much greater reliance on carbs has led to increased incidence of hypertension, CHD and obesity.
Why the preference for sweet foods? In some ways the answer to this is obvious. Sweet indicates presence of sugar which indicates calories needed for energy.
Sweetness would be associated with foods that are ripe and foods that are ripe are going to contain more sugar. Rozin thinks this preference for sweetness is innate. Bell et al gave sweet foods to Eskimos in Alaska.
Under normal conditions Eskimos have nothing sweet in their diet.JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. There are many ways to have students prepare for an essay.
Essay outlining is a more traditional way, but often results in students focusing on the content they will use, rather than the critical thinking and discussion which is essential in an IB essay.
At this stage we were still hunter-gatherers, out looking for food rather than growing and rearing our own supplies.
Modern day hunter-gatherers such as the San of Namibia and Botswana, still acquire about 60% of their energy intake from meat and milk. The Psychodynamic And The Biological Perspectives Psychology Essay. Print Reference this. The next perspective that can be used to understand Michael’s behaviour is the biological perspective.
According to Coon () it explains behaviour “in terms of biological principles such as brain processes, evolution and genetics. The second division of biological psychology is psychopharmacology, which focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behaviour with drugs.
Methods used in this type of research include drug trials, and the subjects can be either human or nonhuman. Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals.
The following paragraphs will describe and discus Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Behavioral, Humanistic, and Biological perspectives of /5(3).