For chronological details, see: History of Art Timeline. The term "Catholic Counter-Reformation art" describes the more stringent, doctrinal style of Christian art which was developed during the period c.
The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide, whose official title is "sacra congregatio christiano nomini propagando" is the department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Counter reformation and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries.
The intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction have caused the cardinal prefect of Propaganda to be known as the "red pope ". History First period Its establishment at Rome in the seventeenth century was Counter reformation partly to the necessity of communicating with new countries then recently discovered, and partly to the new system of government by congregations adopted during the Counter-Reformation.
It is Counter reformation known that, during this period, the defence and propagation of Catholicism suggested to the Holy See the establishment of a complete system of administrative departments, to each of which was assigned some special branch of Catholic interests.
The propagation of the Faith was a matter of such vital importance as to demand for its work an entire congregation. The reconquest for the Church of the lands severed from it was not of greater importance than the evangelization of the vast regions then being explored by courageous adventures.
America, Africathe Far East, opened up new lands, new peoples, new conquests; the Churchconscious of her natural mission to evangelize the world, felt obliged to act and to act quickly, especially as Holland and Englandwhile striving eagerly for commerce and colonial expansion, were also bent upon spreading everywhere the doctrines of Protestantism.
The origin of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda has been variously accounted for; in reality it is the result of slow evolution.
It is certain that it passed through two distinct periods, one formative and the other constitutive. The first period is that of the cardinalitial commission de propaganda fide before it had been constituted a definite pontifical department or ministry.
Their meetings, held under the presidency of Cardinal Santorio, known as the Cardinal of Santa Severinarevealed certain urgent practical needs — e. Its efforts were successful among the Ruthenians Counter reformation, the ArmeniansSyriansboth Western as those of the Lebanon and Eastern as those of Malabar.
After the death of Gregory XIII the rapid succession of four popes in seven years arrested the progress of the commission's work. Clement VIIIa pontiff of large and bold aims, was deeply interested in the commission, and caused its first meeting after his election to be held in his presence.
He retained Santorio as its president: To this period belongs a very notable triumph, the union with Rome of the Ruthenian nation the Little Russia of Poland called the Union of Brest It was a personal commission, depending for its very existence on the energy of its few members.
Eventually the meetings of the three cardinals ceased; at the same time an active propagation of the Catholic Faith was kept up among both Protestants and non-Christians.
The practical demise of the commission made evident the necessity of providing for its permanence. The honour of accomplishing this belongs to Gregory XV The preliminaries of organization were diligently carried on; on 22 June of the same year appeared the Bull "Inscrutabili Divinae", by which the Sacred Congregation de propaganda fide was instituted, composed of thirteen cardinals and two prelatesto whom were added a secretary and a consultor.
On the same day provision was made for the support of the congregation by the Constitution "Romanum Decet". It assigned to Propaganda the tassa dell' anello ring-tax assessed on each newly appointed cardinal gold scudi, later silver scudi. When the financial management increased in importanee, the pope ordered that each of the thirteen cardinals should direct it in turn; at a later date a single cardinal was placed at the head of the financial department.
The death of Gregory XV prevented the founder of the congregation from completing its organization; happily, his successor, Urban VIIIwas Cardinal Barberini, one of the original thirteen members of the congregation. At the same time he appointed his nephew, a second Cardinal Antonio Barberini, as the auxiliary of the preceding, and later made him his successor.
These two open the series of prefects general of Propaganda. It was clear to Urban VIII that the impulse given to the establishment of ecclesiastical seminaries by the Council of Trent had already produced excellent results, even in the vast province of the Propaganda, through the agency of the numerous national colleges then founded, e.
But he also saw that it was necessary to establish a central seminary for the missions where young ecclesiastics could be educatednot only for countries which had no national college but also for such as were endowed with such institutions.
It seemed very desirable to have, in every country, priests educated in an international college where they could acquire a larger personal acquaintance, and establish in youth relations that might be mutually helpful in after life.
It was established by the Bull "Immortalis Dei", of 1 Aug.
The congregation itself developed so rapidly that it became eventually necessary to divide its immense domain into various secretariates and commissions.
This continuous increase of its labours dates from its very earliest years. In the beginning the meetings of the congregation were held in the presence of the pope ; soon, however, the pressure of business grew to be so great that the general prefect and the general secretary were authorized to transact all current business, with the obligation of placing before the popeat stated intervals, the more important matters, which is still the custom.
In extent of territory, in external and internal organization, and in jurisdiction, the congregation has undergone modifications according to the needs of the times; but it may be said that its definite organization dates from about Territorial jurisdiction As a general principle, it was understood that the territory of Propaganda was apart from the Catholics of all the Oriental rites conterminous with those countries that were non-Catholic in government.
Naturally there were, and are, exceptions: The territorial jurisdiction of Propaganda was before the promulgation of the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" as follows: As to the Catholics of the Oriental rites, they are subject personally that is, wherever they may be to Propaganda.
Their division by rites generally corresponds to their nationality. Among most of these peoples there has set in a remarkable tide of emigration to the New Worldespecially to North America, whither the Ruthenians and Maronites emigrate in large numbers. In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" of Pius X 29 June,the plan was followed of entrusting to Propaganda those countries of Europe and America where the ecclesiastical hierarchy is not established.
Great Britain, HollandLuxemburgCanadaand the United States were therefore removed from its jurisdiction ; on the other hand, all the vicariates and prefectures Apostolic of America and the Philippineswhich were formerly subject to the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, were placed under Propaganda.
A departure from the general plan was in leaving Australia under the jurisdiction of the latter congregation, with the addition of St-Pierre, in Martiniqueand Guadeloupe.In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation.
An era After years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. Decrees were. THE STORY OF THE CHURCH - PART 4, TOPIC 1 The Protestant Reformation Reformation Introduction Objectives. We will attempt to define the Protestant Reformation.
Question: "What was the Counter-Reformation?" Answer: The Counter-Reformation was Roman Catholicism’s response to the Protestant heartoftexashop.com the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Christians began to openly criticize the Roman Catholic Church for teaching things contrary to the Bible.
The term Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in to the close of the Thirty Years' War, The name, though long in use among Protestant historians, has only recently been introduced into Catholic handbooks.
The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide, whose official title is "sacra congregatio christiano nomini propagando" is the department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries.
The intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under. The Reformation was a seismic event in European history, one which left an indelible mark on the modern world.
In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Marshall illuminates the causes and consequences of this pivotal movement in western Christianity.