Abstract Background Dietary supplements DSs are commercially available products consumed as an addition to the usual diet and are frequently ingested by athletes.
Executive Summary August Findings Excessive drinking is down significantly among student-athletes. Alcohol excluded, student-athletes are much less likely to engage in social drug use than other college students.
Among student-athletes, self-reported use of social drugs such as tobacco, marijuana and cocaine are much lower than the rates reported in other national studies of college students e.
Self-reported substance use is highest among Division III student-athletes. Across virtually every social drug including alcohol, tobacco and marijuanaDivision III student-athletes reported higher usage rates than seen among student-athletes in Divisions I and II.
In some cases e. Substance use is generally higher among male student-athletes. Although similar percentages of male and female student-athletes report using alcohol, men use other social and ergogenic substances at higher rates than women.
Student-athletes in lacrosse report substance use rates that are notably higher than in other sports.
Among women, lacrosse student-athletes reported high usage rates for alcohol, amphetamines, cigarettes, and marijuana. Nearly one-quarter of student-athletes reported using prescription pain medication. Most student-athletes that reported use had a prescription for the medication. While cigarette use has declined, spit tobacco use has remained relatively high among men within certain sports.
The most frequent spit tobacco users between one-third and one-half of sport participants are men in ice hockey, baseball, lacrosse and wrestling.
The ergogenic aids and dietary supplements most commonly reported by men were testosterone boosters, creatine and amino acids. Student-athletes in those four sports plus wrestling were the most common users of amino acids and creatine. A majority of student-athletes see drug testing as a deterrent.
Student-athletes are more likely to support drug testing for professional and Olympic athletes for student-athletes. Approximately 80 percent of student-athletes believe that Olympic and professional athletes should be drug tested, whereas 60 percent believe college student-athletes should be drug tested.
The NCAA has conducted a national substance use survey on a quadrennial basis since However, due to changes in the survey methodology, comparisons with current results are limited primarily to data from the and studies. One to three teams were invited to participate at each NCAA school.
Surveys were administered at each participating institution with the assistance of the Faculty Athletic Representatives. Data were collected anonymously; results cannot be tied to a particular student-athlete or school.Pros and Cons of Creatine Creatine is believed to be a naturally occurring compound that can be found inside the body.
It is created from many amino acids and a single phosphate molecule. % Success It doesn't! all-natural creatine for athletes. an antioxidant found in chocolate and certain plants that is linked to a wide array of benefits.
Creatine is a controversial supplement used by some athletes in the belief that it enhances performance. Get the full story. A study published in the journal Pediatrics found children as young as age 10 were using creatine.
Of the more than 1, student athletes surveyed in Westchester County, N.Y., about 5. Creatine can be found in small amounts in animal foods and can also be produced in the liver and kidneys from amino acids (arginine, glycine, and methionine).
Many athletes prefer to use the powder form of the substance, which can be mixed in with fluids and is quickly directed into the bloodstream.
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