Tones on long vowels are marked on the first vowel symbol. Root morphemes usually have a mono- or di-syllabic structure. Clusters of two consonants do not occur word-initially or word-finally, i.
In Somali, the tone system distinguishes grammatical rather than lexical differences. Differences include singular and plural, masculine and feminine.
The question of tonality in Somali has been debated for decades. The modern consensus is as follows: In Somali, the tone-bearing unit is the mora rather than the vowel of the syllable. A long vowel or a diphthong consists of two moras and can bear two tones. Each mora is defined as being of high or low tone.
Only one high tone occurs per word and this must be on the final or penultimate mora. Particles do not have a high tone. These include prepositions, clitic pronouns for subject and object, impersonal subject pronouns and focus markers.
There are therefore three possible "accentual patterns" in word roots. Phonetically there are three tones: On a long vowel or diphthong, a sequence of high-low is realised as a falling tone.
On a long vowel or diphthong, a sequence of low-high is realised as high-high. Occasionally it is a rising tone. This use of tone may be characterized as pitch accent. It is similar to that in Oromo. Stress is connected with tone. The high tone has strong stress; the falling tone has less stress and the low tone has no stress.
Root morphemes usually have a mono- or di-syllabic structure. Clusters of two consonants do not occur word-initially or word-finally, ie they only occur at syllable boundaries. The following consonants can be geminate: The following cannot be geminate: Two vowels cannot occur together at syllable boundaries.
Between two vowels they become fricatives. All vowels are nasalised before or after a nasal consonant. Sandhi Phonological changes occur at morpheme boundaries ie sandhi for specific grammatical morphemes. There may be assimilation or elision. This is a kind of external sandhi in which words join, undergoing phonological processes such as elision.
In Somali it is sometimes obligatory and sometimes it is dependent on the speech style. Vowel harmony Roots have front-back vowel harmony.that vowel epenthesis is a very noticeable feature of Somali-accented English: In a recent conversation with ELL teachers, I was asked by several of them why Somali speakers of English add an /i.
cluster simplification by epenthesis as well as deletion (Conway, ; Koffi, ). These results are in concordance with Somali‐accented Swedish (Zetterholm & Tronnier, ).
This paper focuses on vowel quantity and word stress produced by ten Somali speakers learning Swedish as a second language. Similarly to consonant epenthesis, vowel epenthesis has been accounted for via underspecification, for example schwa is often claimed to be featureless.
But many different vowels can be epenthetic. To account for differences in epenthetic vowels via underspecification, different. 1 Consonant Epenthesis: Natural and Unnatural Histories* Juliette Blevins Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology 1.
Introduction. Phonological rules of consonant epenthesis occur in many of the world’s languages, and often involve. A long vowel or a diphthong consists of two morae and can bear two tones.
Each mora is defined as being of high or low tone. Only one high tone occurs per word and this must be .
if epenthesis is carried out without a clearly reduced vowel, in that two syllabic units of similar weight carry consonantal elements originating from one.